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|Glossary of Antique terms A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
|Jackfield - (Ceramics, Pottery, England) The term applies to a black-glazed red earthenware, some of which was made at Jackfield, Shropshire, where potting has been carried out for many centuries.
Jacob, Georges - (Furniture, French, Cabinet Maker) (1739-1814) French cabinet-maker whose chairs are particularly esteemed. He did much work for the Crown.
Jacobite Glasses - (Glass) Drinking glasses bearing propaganda decoration, the significance of which is largely hidden. Portraits of Bonnie Prince Charlie are readily comprehensible but the Jacobite rose, the butterfly, the stricken and burgeoning oak, etc., are are not as easily interpreted. These glasses have been faked.
Jacobite Pottery - (Ceramics, Pottery) Jacobite Pottery is salt-glazed stoneware decorated with Jacobite propaganda.
Japanese War Flag - (Textiles, Collectibles, Military) Japan has two flags. The first is the rising sun, which is the common flag seen with a red circle in the center. The second is the rising sun with sunrays, such as yours. This is the Japanese war flag. The sunrays signify the power of Japan spreading.
Japanning - (Metal) Japanning Metal is produced by baking enamel paint onto the surface. This produce a lacquered looking, shinny surface that is very durable. Used on metal boxes in the early to mid 1800s like bread boxes, documents boxes and other utilitarian wares.
Japanning - (Wood) Lacquered or japanned furniture from the Orient began to arrive in England in the second half of the seventeenth century. The best came from Japan. By 1688 Stalker & Parker had brought out their book called "Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing", and by the end of the seventeenth century most lacquered furniture was being japanned in England. The ground of the piece to be decorated was coated with layers of 'varnish' and polished when dry. The ornament in the Oriental style was drawn on the surface with gold size or vermilion mixed with gum water, and the raised portions put on with a paste composed of whiting and gum arabic. Bantam-work which is incised designs was also used. The taste for japanned furniture extended to the end of the eighteenth century. See Lacquer.
Jardinire - (French) A pot or other container for flowers.
Jasper Ware - (Ceramics, Pottery) Fine stoneware made by Wedgwood, after experiments, from 1774-5. It contained a substance never before used by a potter, namely barium sulphate. The body was slightly translucent and Wedgwood was able to stain it throughout, first with blue and then with shades of green and then other colors, notably black. Cameos, medallions and plaques were the main products, but vases were also manufactured. 'Jasper dip' was different from 'Jasper solid' in that the body was colored on the surface only by dipping; this dipped ware is less esteemed.
Jensen, Gerreit - (Furniture, England, Cabinet Maker) (?-1715) Cabinet-maker who supplied furniture to the Royal Household from the reign of Charles II to that of Queen Anne. Examples of his work that survive prove him to have been a master craftsman-in marquetry, japanned furniture, boulle-work. Mirrors were a specialty.
Jesuit China - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Chinese) Term sometimes applied to Chinese porcelain decorated with religious (Christian) subjects and intended for the European market. Jesuit missionaries were instrumental in bringing about trade between China and the West.
Jew's Porcelain - (Ceramics, Porcelain, German) The Berlin porcelain factory was subsidized in various ways by the ingenious Frederick the Great. One scheme was to force Jews who wished to marry or deal in property to purchase 300 dollars worth of royal porcelain before permission was given. Hence the term.
Jingdezhen, China - (Ceramics, Porcelain Chinese) Jingdezhen is called the Porcelain Capital of the World. The city started its Porcelain Production about one thousand years ago, and from this city alone comes the vast majority of all porcelain pieces in the world. The Chinese City of Jingdezhen was ideally situated with wood, water, clays, skill and labor abundant and nearby. This is also the location of the Imperial Porcelain Factory (Zhushan - the Mountain of the Holy Pearl) The only place where all Chinese Imperial porcelain was made during the Yüan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. The city is situated in the South of China in the Jiangxi Province, about 750 kilometers inland, from Shanghai.
Johnson, Thomas - (Furniture, England, Designer) Furniture designer and noted wood-carver active in London during the third quarter of the eighteenth century. His first book of designs, Twelve Girandoles, was published 1755; One Hundred and Fifty New Designs came out in parts 1756-8.
Joiner - (Furniture, England, Cabinet Maker) A maker of furniture before the days of the cabinetmaker (who came into his own at the end of the seventeenth century). Originally known as an arkwright, there is a reference to 'the Joyners of the City of London' as early as 1400. The joiner did in fact join pieces of wood together by means of mortise and tenon, dowels or wood pins, whereas the cabinetmaker was to bring with him a new technique which involved the use of different joins and metal fasteners such as nails and screws, also glue.
Jones, Henry - (Clocks, Clockmaker) (1632-95) Notable English clock-maker; was apprenticed to Edward East in 1654; made clocks and watches of exceptional quality.
Jones, Inigo - (Furniture, Architect) (1573-1651) Architect who introduced later Italian Renaissance or Palladian work into England during the Jacobean period. It is probable that he personally designed some furniture. Ju Ware Stoneware of the Sung dynasty comprising a yellowish body and crackled, pale lavender glaze. This ware, which closely approaches porcelain, was made in the early years of the twelfth century; it is very rare and highly esteemed.
JPL France Mark - (Porcelain, France) The JPL France Mark is from the Jean Pouyat Porcelain Factory. Jean Pouyat came from a Family that had been involved in one way or another in the Porcelain business since the 1760’s. He started his factory in 1842.
Jubako – (Lacquer, Ceramics, Japanese) A food box that can be round or square and has several sections that stack with a lid that fits on the top. It can be made from lacquer or ceramics. In a Sageju (Picnic Box) there is usually one section that is a jubako.
Jugendstil - (Style) Art Nouveau in German