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              Glossary of Antique terms  A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

              Saber Leg - (Furniture) a slightly curved chair or settee leg that was popular in the 18th and early 19th Century. The legs in the front flare forward and the back legs curved out behind.

              Sabiurushi - (Japanese Lacquer) Filler lacquer. Lacquer thickened with  a powder, usually of soft stone or unglazed pottery. Used for priming surfaces and for raising designs.

              Sabot - (Clothing, Shoe) A Sabot is a wooden shoe worn in some European countries or a sandal or shoe having a band of leather or other material across the instep.

              Saddle Seat - (Furniture) a chair seat usually made from one board carved so that it dips from the center to form a shallow depression on each side like a saddle. Common form in Windsor chairs.

              Sadler & Green - (Ceramics, Pottery, Decorators, England) Partners in a Liverpool business that specialized in the decoration of pottery (and perhaps manufactured some wares). John Sadler may have been the first to use transfer printing as a means of decorating ceramics; he is said to have invented the process in 1750. The firm was active throughout the second half of the eighteenth century. Many Staffordshire potters (including Wedgwood) sent large quantities of earthenware to Sadler & Green to be decorated.

              Sad Ware - (Pewter) Sad Ware is flat articles made of pewter.

              Saga Furs - (Fur, Mink) Saga Furs is a not-for-profit marketing organization representing the four Scandinavian countries that produce over 50 percent of the world's mink. In the year 2005 the production number will be over 16 million pelts. The international fur manufacturing community purchases the mink from Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and the pelt are then made into coats and the coats are available in all of the better fur retailers, department stores, specialty stores, designer boutiques, and catalogs. There are two labels for Scandinavian mink. There is the Saga label, which is identified as the best quality skins after the grading process, and Saga Royal, which is awarded to the top 10 percent of the Saga skins. The expert Saga Fur skin graders include such parameters as hair length, density, silkiness, resilience, color and even the texture of the individual fibers. The length and density of the guard hairs is what gives Scandinavian mink its special appeal.

              Sageju - (Japanese) Early in the 'Edo era,' a portable box was originated for use by feudal lords and aristocrats when they went to cherry-blossom viewing parties, boating or picnics. It was an ensemble of a lunch box, 'sake' bottle, cups, dishes or Jubako (stacking boxes for food) and a tray. While it was very functional, it was also very artistic. To enliven picnics of these noblemen, it was embellished with the typical arts and crafts of 'Edo' including nuri (coating), makie (lacquer) and sashimono (joinery work).
               
              Saint Cloud - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Soft-paste, France) Soft-paste porcelain made at this French factory (founded for the production of faience c. 1670) from about 1700. Saint Cloud is the first French porcelain manufactory. The porcelain was of good quality, slightly yellowish, the decoration at first following that encountered on Rouen faience, and then, from about 1730, the Kakiemon style. The factory closed about 1770. The most common mark is a sun.

              Saint Petersburg - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Russian) The Russian Imperial Porcelain Factory was at St Petersburg, Moscow. Porcelain is said to have been manufactured as early as 1744 but little is known of wares produced before 1762. After this date the French style predominates.

              Salopian - (Ceramics, Porcelain, England) Mark on, and name sometimes given to, Caughley porcelain.

              Salt Cellar - (Glass, Silver) The important position of the great salt cellar on the dining-table in the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance period accounts for the elaborate workmanship bestowed on it. Existing examples of the hour-glass form date from between 1490 and 1525. Then came a different form, either square or circular in plan, the cover raised on brackets, and often surmounted by a figure. The salts known as `bell salts' which, as the name suggests, expand towards the base, appeared towards the close of the sixteenth century. Small open salts, `trencher salts', date from the reign of Charles II, when the ceremonial use of the great salt had died out. These small salts, usually bowl-shaped, though box-shaped examples with hinged lids are to be found, remained solid till mid-Georgian times, when pierced work, and glass liners, came into favor.

              Salt-glaze - ( Ceramics, Stoneware, Glaze, Technique) Glaze for stoneware. Salt is thrown into the kiln when the maximum temperature is reached and the great heat reduces the salt to its component parts, one of which, sodium, combines with silica in the ware to form a thin skin or glaze.

              Saltire - (Furniture) Stretchers-of tables and chairs which cross in X-form, usually with a finial at the crossing.

              Samaakand Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Rugs that belong in the Chinese group, though the Persian influence is to be detected. Coloring is usually extremely rich. Over-all floral patterns are characteristic; square medallions are another favored motif. Loosely woven usually using the Senna knot.

              Samekawanuri - (Japanese Lacquer) "Lacquered sharkskin". The depressions in bumpy sharkskin are filled in with sabiurushi; when this hardens, heavy polishing grinds down the highest bumps on the sharkskin and smoothes the surface, which then receives a protective of lacquer and a final polish.

              Sampler - (Textile) The Sampler has had a long and interesting history. The term sampler comes from the Latin exemplum meaning 'an example to be followed, a pattern, a model or example'. The earliest dated samplers and references to them come from the 16th century, they probably were stitched long before this time. The first known dated English sampler was made by Jane Bostocke in 1598 to celebrate the birth of her daughter or relative Alice Lee, and is in the sampler collection at the Victoria and Albert museum. This sampler is covered with random motifs in a variety of stitches and shades, and includes metal threads, pearls and beads. The early samplers were sewn mainly by women, and were intended as examples, both of designs and of different stitches, such as cross stitch, eyelet, Algerian eye, long armed cross etc. These long, narrow band samplers contain a variety of different designs, alphabets, and sometimes cut or pulled thread work. Many consist of elaborate scrolled designs in double running or holbein stitch. Later in the 17th century the style changed to spot samplers, random motifs worked in silk, which were often intended to be cut out and appliquéd onto bed hangings or other furnishings. During this period printed pattern books became available, so samplers lost some of their use as works of reference. Many of the designs from these books can be seen repeated in English samplers from this time onwards. From the mid-eighteenth century, it became more common for young girls to work samplers as part of their education, of which needlework formed a major part. These samplers began to take on the form that is best known, with decorative borders, alphabets, motifs such as animals, flowers and houses, and they usually contained a verse. Marking samplers included various alphabets in reversible stitches, crowns and coronets, which could be used to mark for identification of the household linens of the aristocracy. Other samplers contained religious  verses or symbols, and yet others taught geography in the form of embroidered maps, or mathematics with cross stitch multiplication tables. During Victorian times, samplers became more pictorial, and turned into decorative articles to be hung by parents in the parlor. As the designs became more elaborate the number of different stitches was reduced, until generally only one stitch remained in use, ending up with the cross stitch samplers known today.

              Samson Ceramics - Samson et Cie (Ceramics, Porcelian, French) Edme Samson (1810-1891) was a French porcelain maker that began working for museums and collectors in 1845 making copies of Oriental and European porcelain that had been broken or destroyed. His son Emile (1837-1913) joined him in the firm and made reproductions of 18th Century wares specializing in Sevres, Chinese Export, Meissen, Chelsea, and Derby. The Samson et Cie factory reproduced and openly sold their pieces as reproductions but were often better than the originals and can still fool the inexperienced collector. Samson worked only in hard paste porcelain but copied many soft paste porcelain patterns from France and England. He also made copies in ormolu, faience, enamels, and Delft. Samson often reproduced the marks too, frequently included a disguised “S” or a dissected cross. The factory closed in 1970.

              Sanborn’s Department Store - (Silver, Fine Arts, Antiques) Sanborn’s Department Store is located in Mexico City. In 1903, two brothers, Walter & Frank Sanborn opened a small drug store in Mexico City. It eventually grew into a huge conglomerate. The Sanborn’s mark usually depicts a trademark logo with three owls. This is to represent Frank Sanborn and his two sons. The owl mark has been used since 1931. Fredrick W. Davis supervised Sanborn’s Antiques & Fine Art Department beginning in 1935. Frank Sanborn died in 1961.

              Sand-box - (Silver, Pewter) Pot, usually of silver or pewter, with perforated lid and containing fine sand for drying ink.

              San Tsai - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Stoneware, Chinese) 'Three-color' decoration on Ming stoneware and porcelain; the alkali silicate glazes, colored with metallic oxides and applied direct to the previously fired body, are kept apart by ridges or engraved lines. Colors used include blue, yellow, turquoise, green.

              Sarabend Rugs
              - (Floor Coverings) Persian rugs of fine weave using the Senna knot, the ground-of white, blue or red-being covered with small conical devices set close together; five to seven stripe border.

              Sar(o)uk Carpets - (Floor Coverings)  Persian rugs of fine weave with Senna knot, the medallion a favored motif, dark blue and red the primary colors; three to seven stripe border; similar to Kashans.

              Satin Glass - (Glass) A nineteenth century term for glass with a matte finish. It can be colored or clear and has a soft, dull, velvety-looking finish. This look is achieved by using hydrofluoric acid. It can be painted or transfer decorated and was made by many glass factories.

              Satinwood - (Wood) A number of woods are so called but only two varieties have been much used by English cabinet-makers. One is from the West Indies and the other from the East Indies. Both are yellowish in tone and vary from a plain grain to a mottled figure. The West Indian variety was used as a veneer from the 1760's onwards, and also, but to a lesser extent, in the solid. The East Indian variety was introduced in the late eighteenth century and was similarly employed, and also used for cross-banding. The `age of satinwood' 1770-1830.

              Satsuma Ware - (Japanese) Japanese pottery made at Satsuma, on the island of Kyushu, since the early seventeenth century. Kilns established in the Satsuma domain in southern Kyushu by Korean potters in the late 16th century; initially produced stoneware covered with a thick dark glaze. Many kinds of wares were made, but the cream-colored pottery decorated with enamel colors and gilding dates from the late eighteenth century. During the mid 19th century, the well-known pottery with "brocade" enameled designs on a buff body was created. The later Satsuma ware is considered earthenware by ceramic standards - and does not have a "ring" when tapped. The paste is slightly yellowish and the glaze normally has a fine crackle. This highly decorated ware was produced in several cities such as Kyoto, Tokyo, Nagoya, Yokohama, and elsewhere from the Meiji period mostly for export to the West, and is still being produced.

              Savonnerie Carpets - (Floor Coverings) These French carpets (so-called because they were first produced in an old soap factory) were made from the second quarter of the seventeenth century. The Turkish knot was used and they have a close-cut pile. Eighteenth century examples are sometimes to be found but at a very high price.

              Sawtooth Edge - (Glass, Cut) Zigzag cuts on glass rims. American Brilliant Period cut glass rims, the "teeth" or Sawtooth Edge are usually beveled or somewhat rounded. Perfectly pointed teeth around the rim are often a clue to recent production.

              Scagliola - (Material, Italian) A composition composed of ground plaster of paris mixed with a solution of glue and colored to imitate marble. The technique is very old, so that the work of the Italian master mason Guido del Conte (1584-1649), whose scagliola was greatly esteemed, was in the nature of a revival. Slabs of scagliola were imported into England in the eighteenth century for use as tops of tables and commodes.

              Sceaux - (Ceramics, Porcelain, France) Faience and porcelain factory founded about 1749 by an architect named de Bey at Sceaux, near Paris. Extremely little porcelain was made until 1775 when the Duc de Penthievre, High Admiral of France, became patron. Quality painted decoration with an anchor mark. The factory closed in 1794. Sconce Term applied to a wall-light consisting of a candle branch or branches (or tray) and back-plate. The back-plate, which could be of metal or mirror-glass, served as a reflector. Decoration is frequently rich on mid-eighteenth-century examples.

              Schiller, W. & Sons
              - (Earthenware, Porcelain) W. Schiller & Sons Bodenbach, Bohemia (presently Podmokly, Czechia) In 1885 Schiller & Gerbing split into two companies W. Schiller & Sons and Gerbing & Stephan. They were known for the production of fine majolica. The factory closed prior to WWI. Mark is W. S. & S. in a Frame.

              Schmetglas – (Glass, Germany) Schmetglas is the German name for agate glass first made in Roman times and then imitated in Germany during the Renaissance. See Agate Glass and Calcedonio.
                
              Schumann - (Porcelain, Germany) Carl Schumann Porcelain Factory, Arzberg Bavaria, Germany. The Carl Schumann Porcelain Factory was founded by Heinrich Schumann and they produced decorative and Dinnerware Porcelain, coffee and tea sets and gift articles. The company bought Porcelain Factory Colditz in Colditz and closed it in 1996. They opened in 1881 and Closed in 1996

              Screen - (Furniture, Fireplace, Accessories) There are three basic types: (1) the folding screen which is made up of leaves hinged (or otherwise connected) and covered with paper, lacquered wood or textiles; (2) a frame standing on a base and feet-i.e. cheval screen; (3) a frame supported on a standard or pole. pole-screen. The three types were made in considerable quantities during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

              Screw-barrel Pistol - (Weapon, Firearms) The barrel screws on to a short breech chamber and is unscrewed for loading. Invented about 1635.

              Screws - (Furniture, Hardware, Fastenings) Metal screws for furniture were first used in England towards the end of the seventeenth century. They had a slotted head and the thread was hand-filed. Screws were first produced on a lathe about 1760. The modern machine-made pointed screw came into use in the middle of the nineteenth century.

              Scriptor - (Furniture, French) Form of French writing cabinet. The term was used in the late seventeenth century for the forerunner of the bureau writing cabinet that came in at the end of the century. Also know as escritoire or scrutoire.

              Scroll - (Decoration) A Decorative element in the form of a scroll or a spiraling form like a rolled up scroll.

              Scroll Arm - (Furniture, Wooden) A Scroll Arm is a wooden chair with a carved arm whose front ends in a downward curving spiral.

              Scroll Pediment
              - (Architecture, Furniture) Simply put, a Scroll Pediment is a pediment that consists of two facing S-scrolls. Scroll Pediments are a Broken Arch Pediments with an arched top that is composed of two opposing cyma recta curves. They can each terminate in a spiral or a flower head. They are also known as Bonnet Scroll, Swan Neck Pediment, Scroll Top, or Broken-Scroll Pediment. A distinctly American variant was the Bonnet Top. See Pediment for the many different types.

              Scroll Top - (Architecture, Furniture) See Scroll Pediment. Also See Pediment for the many different types.

              Scrutoire - (Furniture, French) Form of French escritoire or writing cabinet. The term was used in the late seventeenth century for the forerunner of the bureau writing cabinet that came in at the end of the century. Also know as escritoire or scrutoire.

              Secret Decoration - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Decoration, Glaze, Chinese) Actually called An H; first used early in the Ming period, perhaps as early as A.D. 1400. This decoration can only be seen when the piece is held up to a light. In some cases the design was engraved on the body with a needle before glazing; in other cases the design was painted in white slip on a White body before glazing.

              Secondary Wood - (Furniture) The wood used in making the hidden parts of a piece of furniture. Usually made with less expensive woods that are readily available and found locally. The geographical area where the piece was made can sometimes be determined by checking the secondary wood.

              Seddon, George - (Furniture, Cabinet Maker, England) (1727-1801) Cabinet-maker and successful business man whose mass production methods enabled him to cater for the less than rich; transformed his Aldersgate Street (London) workshops into a forerunner of the modern furnishing store with, by 1786, some 400 employees. His firm flourished well into the nineteenth century.

              Senna Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Persian rugs of fine texture and short wool pile; over-all decoration of repeated leaf, floral or cone motifs are typical; blue, red or ivory are basic colours, supported by greens, yellows; three-stripe border; Senna knot.

              Serpentine – (Form, Shape) Undulating, back and forth like a snake.

              Serpentine Front - (Furniture, Form) An undulating front in which the centre is usually convex and the two ends concave. In the case of furniture dating from the middle years of the eighteenth century this shaping was used to display advantageously the figure of veneers. A serpentine-shaping was also freely used for the friezes of tables and rails of seat furniture.

              Seto - (Ceramics, Japan) A Japanese ceramics-making centre for many centuries. In the nineteenth century it was at Seto that most of those enormous vases, three feet or more high, were made for export to Europe.

              Settee - (Furniture) The term seems to have been first used in England in the early years of the eighteenth century, the word probably being a diminutive of `settle' (see next entry). Many kinds of seat have been described as settees so that the only safe definition is `a seat with back and arms for two or more persons'. It is difficult to distinguish between a settee and a sofa, but generally a sofa is larger, long enough to allow a person to recline at full length. A particular form of settee that dates from the end of the seventeenth century is the double or treble-chair type. The `love seat' is a settee-for two only. The `hall settee' lacks any upholstery or padding and is usually severe; such pieces were specifically designed for the hall during the eighteenth century.

              Settle - (Furniture) A long seat accommodating two or more persons, having a back and arms and an enclosed base; the seat is usually a lid. The settle evolved from the chest, which is what early examples are-plus back and arms. The settle dates back to the fifteenth century, perhaps earlier.

              Sevres - (Ceramics, Porcelain, France) This French porcelain factory founded at Vincennes in 1738 by M. Orry de Fulvi with the help of two workmen from Chantilly. The venture was far from successful and in 1745 a company was formed under the direction of Charles Adam who obtained a thirty-year monopoly from Louis XV and the services of outstanding administrators and workmen. In 1756 the factory was removed to Sevres where it continues working to this day. Soft-paste porcelain was made until 1769, when a hard paste was introduced, the two being made concurrently, the hard paste slowly ousting the soft. The hardpaste porcelain was termed Porcelaine Royale to distinguish it from the soft-paste Porcelaine de France, and the former was marked with a crown surmounting the crossed `L's'.
              Thanks to royal patronage (and severe restrictions imposed on rival ventures) the soft-paste porcelain made at Sevres from 1756 to 1786 is finer than anything else of that period. The famous biscuit porcelain, so suitable for figures and statuettes, was introduced as early as 1751. Painted decoration on colored ground was superb. Such ground colors as the dark mottled blue (gros bleu), turquoise (bleu celeste), strong rich blue (bleu de Roi), and pink (rose Pompadour) were of a richness never achieved before.
              Sevres porcelain of the eighteenth century was made for the wealthy, and the collector who collects it today will have to pay dearly for his predilection. Inevitably it has been faked a lot. The mark is the famous crossed double `L'.

              Sewing Stand - (Furniture) A small piece of furniture for storing sewing items that was made to sit on the floor by a chair. They can take many boxlike forms.

              Sgraffiato or Sgraffito  - (Ceramics, Pottery, Glaze, Technique) The word Sgraffiato in Italian means scratched. Pottery decoration sometimes used when the slip and the body are of contrasting colors, the design being incised through the slip to reveal the body color.

              Shaft - (Cane) The shaft is the straight part of the cane, usually made of wood, but it can be found in other materials. Shafts are made from Botanical materials (Stems, Branches, Woods), from Zoological materials (Horn, Ivory, Bone), from inorganic materials (Metals, Glass) or from a combination of several types of materials.

              Shagreen - (Leather) A term used for (1) the skin of sharks-and other fish-prepared as a covering for boxes, knife-cases, etc., and (2) unstained leather in which a granular surface was obtained by pressing seeds into the material while soft and flexible, this leather when dyed and dried also being used for box and case coverings.

              Shaker Furniture - (Furniture) The term is used loosely to indicate early American cottage furniture, some of which, no doubt, was made by `Shakers' (members of a religious sect).

              Sham-dram - (Glass) Cheap drinking glass with deceptive bowl that holds less than a publican's measure of Scotch today; humble relation of the toast-master glass, made for the use of the tavern-keeper.

              Shaving Mug - (Vanity, Ceramic, Glass, Silver) A Shaving Mug is a container that was made to hold the water, soap, and brush that was used to prepare the soap that a man used to put on his face to make the shaving process go smoothly and were in use until WW1 and were produced until the 1930s. There are several classifications of shaving mugs such as personalized, decorative, occupational, and fraternal. The most popular and expensive of the group being the occupational. Decorative mugs were usually for home use. Personalized, occupational, and fraternal mugs were generally kept at the barbershop and were used exclusively on the person that owned it, for sanitary purposes.

              Shearer, Thomas - (Furniture, Cabinet Maker, England) Cabinet-maker and designer, a contemporary of Hepplewhite and Sheraton, to whom is often given the credit for first producing what we today think of as the modern sideboard. His designs first appeared in 1788 in The Cabinet Maker's London Book of Prices, which was really a trade catalogue, and were re-issued in the same year as Designs for Household Furniture.

              Sheffield Plate - (Silver) The first Silverplate and it is considered the best by many. Wares made of copper plated with silver, the sheets of copper being sandwiched by rolling between films of silver. The process was invented by Thomas Bolsover, a Sheffield cutler, in about 1742, but he seems to have made little but buttons with his new ware. The first domestic items, such as coffee pots and candlesticks, were made in the middle 1750's. Matthew Boulton, (1728-1809) the Birmingham manufacturer who made the finest English ormolu, was the first to exploit the new process in a big way; he set up a factory for this purpose in 1762. The mid-nineteenth-century invention of electro-plating superseded the making of Sheffield plate.

              Shenandoah Valley Pottery
              - The pottery of the Shenandoah region was influenced primarily by German immigrants and tradesmen. English influences were significant but played a lesser role in the overall Shenandoah Valley tradition. Between 1745 and 1750, pottery began to be processed in the Valley. Abundant and rich Valley earthen and stoneware clays were an enticement to potters. Here they could possibly own a shop and clay source at the same location, or at least very close. The agrarian society had great needs for pottery products. The Shenandoah Valley was a long distance from major towns and import prices were subject to freight costs. This gave local potters with cheap resources at hand, clay, wood, and some glaze ingredients, a financial trump over tradesmen from the larger towns, Alexandria, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The War Between the States was a major interruption to Valley production. As reconstruction advanced, the industry became more of a recognized force, primarily due to the availability of shipments by rail. The Bell family was the primary pottery production force during this period; John and family in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania, Peter in Winchester, and Solomon, Samuel and his family in Strasburg. During this period, Hagerstown was in major decline for pottery production. One major reason for this decline was John Bell’s voluminous and artful production; just a few miles away. Bell’s products were pervasive throughout the area. Between 1897 and 1915, Valley pottery production deteriorated, due to major imports and new canning devices.

              Sheraton Style - (Furniture, Federal) Sheraton, Thomas (1751-1806) published several books on furniture. The most important one being The Cabinet-Maker's and Upholsterer's Drawing Book that was published in 1791-4 in four parts. In these books Thomas Sheridan showed furniture designs interpreting the Adam’s Style in a more practical, popular version with less ornamentation. They were simple, light, and delicate. Highlights of the style are arabesques, urns, lyres, and swags banding and geometrical patterns of contrasting veneers, flat inlay, or painted decoration. His chair designs had a square back and incorporated urns, lyres, and swags into the open work splats. Sheridan’s designs were very important to the Federal Period.

              Sheraton, Thomas - (Furniture Designer) (1751-1806) - Author and furniture designer who, though trained as a cabinet-maker, was never in business as a manufacturer of furniture. He was born in Stockton-onTees, County Durham, and must have come to London before 1791 as in that year, the first part of The Cabinet-Maker's and Upholsterer's Drawing Book was published. The work was in four parts and came out 1791-4. In 1803 he published the Cabinet Dictionary, an illustrated work which not only defined and explained terms used in the trade but also contained directions for varnishing, polishing and gilding. His last work, The Cabinet-Maker, Upholsterer, and General Artist's Encyclopedia, a rambling compilation in one volume, came out in 1805, the year before he died. Sheraton's first work, the Drawing Book, is by far his most important, and it is important for its drawings. Sheraton was not a great author but he was an excellent draughtsman.

              Shibuichi - (Japanese Lacquer) Copper-silver alloy, consisting of three parts copper to one part silver. The alloy is usually darkened by pickling.

              Shipping Goods - (Term, Furniture, Antiques) Trade term applied to articles, usually late Victorian or Edwardian, bought in bulk by wholesale buyers from overseas. A superior class of shipping trade is that between British dealers and buyers from the antiques departments of large overseas stores who seek furnishing antiques.

              Shiraz Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Persian, of medium weave, both the Ghiordiz and Senna knot used; typical designs are the hexagonal medallion and cone device; red is the basic color.

              Shirvan Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Caucasian, Ghiordiz knot, loose texture and coarse weave. The ivory ground is favored with geometrical designs-medallions, diamonds, stars-in red, blue, green and brown. Three to five stripe border.

              Shishiai Togidashi Makie - (Japanese Lacquer) Combination sprinkled design. Makie design that uses both Takamakie and Togidashi makie techniques. Frequently used in landscapes, where such elements as rocks, clouds, or mountains are done in a raised sprinkled design that gently slopes into a flattened sprinkled design.

              Shu Fu - (Ceramics, Porcelain, China) Porcelain Ware made at Ching-ti-chen during the Yuan and early Ming dynasties, mostly dishes and bowls with incised, molded or slip decoration under a pale blue-green or blue-white glaze; some pieces bear the incised inscription shu fu, or fu, or lu. Also known as Privy Council ware.

              Shoe-piece - (Furniture, Chair) Until about 1700 the splat of a chair back was not connected with the seat. But for most of the eighteenth century the splat did come down to the seat and the shaped projection into which the splat bedded was termed a 'shoe-piece'.

              Shouldered Stem - (Glass) A style of drinking glass stem, with a shoulder, which may be spiral-molded or vertically ribbed or reeded; early examples are frequently four-sided. Often called the shouldered or molded pedestal stem. Popular throughout the first half of the eighteenth century. Correctly called a Silesian Stem.

              Shovel- or Shuffle-board Table - (Furniture, Game Board) Long (very long), narrow table made for the game of `shovillaborde' in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

              Siam Silver Company - (Silver Manufacturer, Jewelry, Hollowware) The Siam Silver Company made Jewelry & Hollowware from the 1930s until the 1980s.

              Sideboard - (Furniture) The sideboard proper, as distinct from the dining room side-table, dates from the early years of the reign of King George III . At first detached pedestals, supporting urns, flanked the side-table; a little later the pedestals became connected with the board and drawers were fitted to the frieze. During the Regency period the pedestal type returned to fashion, but the proportions were ill-considered.

              Sieck, Rudolf - (Artist) (1877-1957) Rudolf Sieck has had 89 pieces of artwork offered at auction to date. There have been 28 drawings and watercolors, 22 paintings, 38 prints and aquatints, and 1 ceramic piece. He was a prolific artist that worked in multiple mediums, oil on canvas, board and paper, tempura, watercolor, chalk, India ink, and pencil. He even painted on porcelain.

              Sifter Sugar Spoon - (Metal Utensil) A spoon with a pierced bowl used for sprinkling sugar evenly on food. Sugar was an expensive luxury and in the early 1600s fancy sugar equipment began to appear everywhere in Europe. Sifter Sugar Spoon was created to give the food a powdered appearance when sprinkled

              Silesian Glass
              - (Glass) Glass made in Silesia; rivaled the products of Bohemia, particularly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and is noted for the engraved glass made during the eighteenth century.

              Silesian Stem  - (Glass) A style of drinking glass stem, with a shoulder, which may be spiral-molded or vertically ribbed or reeded; early examples are frequently four-sided. Often called the shouldered or molded pedestal stem. Popular throughout the first half of the eighteenth century.

              Silverplate - (Silver) A thin coat of silver fused to a thicker sheet of copper or another base metal. The first method of plating was invented in Sheffield, England, in the 1740s. Rolled sheet silver was fused to copper by heat. At first only one side was plated, but by the early 1770s the copper was sandwiched between rolled sheet silver. Electroplating was invented in the 1830s and gradually replaced Sheffield Plate.

              Simpson, Hall, Miller Company - (Silver Company American) Wallingford Connecticut. Founded by Samuel Simpson Mark Pre 1895 SHM & Co. Simpson, Hall, Miller Co. joined International Silver in 1889 and became their Sterling Center.

              Simpson, Samuel - (Silversmith American) Founder of the Simpson, Hall, Miller Company Wallingford Connecticut.

              Sirocco - (Plastic) Hard plastic that was used to make decorative items starting in the late 1940. These items took many forms and hit their height of popularity in the late 1960s early 1970s.

              Sivas Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Rare type of Asia Minor rug from the city of Sivas; noted for white field with red medallion and blue, white, green and yellow floral corners; not very bright; fine cotton for both warp and weft is unusual feature.

              Skewer - ( Metal, Silver) A utensil for cooking meat over a fire. Silver examples are esteemed mainly because they make good letter-openers.

              Skillet - (Metal, Copper, Silver, Iron,  Bronze) Forerunner of the modern saucepan and successor of the cauldron, a small metal pot with long handle and (usually) legs. Except for some rare, early, bronze skillets the most esteemed are silver examples of the seventeenth century, especially if they are complete with cover.

              Skirt - (Furniture) The apron, or strip of wood beneath the front of the seat of a chair.

              Sleigh Bed - (Furniture) Bed of the Empire period, without posts but with head and foot boards rolling over.

              Slider - (Furniture) Small wagon for use on the dining-table. Sometimes fitted with wheels, but examples are more likely to have a polished wooden base (which were originally covered with baize). They are to be found in various shapes and often with compartments to hold glasses, bottles.See Coaster.

              Slip - (Ceramics, Decoration) Clay reduced to liquid and used variously for the decoration of pottery. It may be white or colored. The most common use is to form a first coating.

              Slipper Chair - (Furniture, American) American chair from the 18th & 19th centuries. A chair that is usually upholstered, with short legs and a high back, intended to be used in a bedroom.

              Slipware - (Ceramics, Pottery, Decoration) Pottery decorated with slip

              Smoker’s Bow Windsor Chair - (Furniture) The Smoker’s Chair was developed in America in the early 19th Century. The cresting has a slight rearward scroll at its upper edge, is mounted on the arm bow, back rail, and is continuous with the arms, which flare in an outward scroll at their end. The legs are connected by a single or double H-stretcher. It has evolved into the Firehouse Windsor Chair, Captain’s Chair, and the Bergere-Bow Windsor Chair. The Smoker’s Bow Windsor Chair became extremely popular in America and England by 1840 and it is still produced today. Also known as an Elbow Chair.

              Snake Foot - (Furniture) A Snake Foot is a type of Dutch Foot that is elongated and comes to a rounded point at its end. The foot splays out like a snake's head.

              Snake Wood - (Wood) Red Brazilian wood with black markings like snakeskin; used for marquetry.

              Snaphaunce - (Weapon, Firearms) A type of gunlock invented in the Netherlands during the sixteenth century. Some experts hold the snaphaunce to be the earliest form of flintlock; others contend that it is a distinct type from which the flintlock developed. But basically the snaphaunce comprises a piece of flint held in the jaws of a cock for striking against a piece of steel to cause sparks. When the steel is knocked back by the cock the separate sliding cover of the pan is opened and the sparks can get to the priming.

              Snuff Bottle - (Glass, Ivory, Jade, Chinese) Chinese bottle to contain snuff or medicine with stopper-spoon; those made during the Chien Lung period are very fine.

              Snuff Box - (Silver, Gold, Pewter, Porcelain) Dates from the seventeenth century and is to be found in gold, silver, brass, pewter, steel, tortoiseshell, porcelain, wood, papier mache, ivory, pinchbeck, horn. . . Enamel examples from Battersea (particularly) and Bilston are esteemed but have been faked a lot. The small pocket snuff box would hold from quarter to half an ounce; larger boxes, often with detachable lids, were meant for the table; the latter, if long enough to take cigarettes, are much sought and correspondingly expensive. Snuff boxes with incorporated rasps went out towards the end of the eighteenth century with the advent of prepared snuff.

              Snuff Spoon - (Silver) Small, usually of silver; for the use of ladies who did not want to get the snuff under their nails.

              Snuffers - (Silver) Implement for shortening the wick of a candle (which was not fully consumed by the flame until the nineteenth century). Snuffers are mentioned in the fifteenth century. From the post-Restoration period onward. they consist of two hinged blades, one fitted with a box, the other with a plate or blade which is pressed into the box when the candle is snuffed (not unlike a pair of scissors).

              Snuffer Stand - (Silver) Upright holder for snuffers.

              Snuffer Tray - (Silver) Vertical holder for snuffers; superseded the snuffer stand in the eighteenth century.

              Soaprock or Soapstone - (Ceramics, Rock) Steatite which in its natural state contains china clay and is therefore helpful in the manufacture of porcelain. Quarried in Cornwall, it was first used at Bristol about 1748, then at Worcester and other factories.

              Sofa - (Furniture) The term appears in the late years of the seventeenth century, and was used to describe `a couch for reclining' in 1692; it was applied to a long upholstered piece of furniture. In the Regency and Empire period a version of the classical couch was designed and called a `Grecian sofa'.

              Sofa Table - (Furniture) Rectangular, usually with hinged end-leaves, often with two shallow front drawers: an extremely elegant table that dates from the late Georgian period and found high favour with the Regency.

              Soffit - (Furniture) The underside of a cornice or lintel. An architectural term carried over into furniture.

              Soft-paste Porcelain - (Ceramics, Porcelain) Soft or `artificial' porcelain differs from hard-paste porcelain (see above) in that it is a `softer' material, that it requires less heat (about 1,100 degrees Centigrade as against 1,450 degrees Centigrade for hard) to fuse it, that it can be scratched or cut with metal (the edge of a file) that the glaze was always added afterwards.
              It was inevitable the European potters desirous of producing a ware that would partake of the translucency of Chinese porcelain should introduce glass into the mix. This was first done successfully at Florence about 1560, the product being known as Medici porcelain. Surviving examples are very rare indeed. It was not till the beginning of the eighteenth century that any great quantity of porcelain was produced. St Cloud was probably the first successful French factory (from before 1700), followed by Chantilly, Mennecy, Vincennes, S6vres; in Italy, Nove (before 1730), Doccia, Capo-di-Monte ...
              In Europe the basic ingredients were clay and ground glass, in England bone-ash and, in a few cases, soaprock, were preferred to glass. Bone-ash makes for easier working and seems to have been first used at Bow about 1750, then later at Chelsea, Derby and other centers. Soaprock was first used at Bristol in 1748, other factories to use it being Worcester, Caughley, Liverpool.

              Shou - (Chinese) Chinese symbol representing happiness and longevity

              Solon, Mare - (Ceramics, Porcelain, France) French ceramic artist who worked at Sevres before coming to England in 1871 to work for Mintons, bringing the pate-sur pate technique with him.

              Soumak Rugs - (Floor Coverings) Caucasian, no pile (a tapestry stitch being used), most designs are geometrical, particularly large diamonds with accompanying flattened octagons; red, blue and brown are the usual colors, and the border may have two to five stripes.

              Spandrel - (Furniture) The space between the outer curve of an arch and the rectangle formed by enclosing molding.

              Spatter Glass - (Glass) Vivid, mottled with bright colors-red, yellow, green, brown. Derives from Nailsea. The English variety is lined with white opaque glass; the American is not. `Spangled' glass is similar but more so.

              Spatterware - (Pottery, England, Staffordshire) Spatterware is an early 19th century English china pottery made in the Staffordshire region and known for its colorful "spattered" or "stippled" decoration.

              Spider Table - (Furniture) A variety of gate-leg table with extremely slender turned legs; mid-eighteenth century.

              Spill - (Wood, Paper) A spill is a thin piece of wood or twisted, folded paper use to light candles and pipes before matches were invented.

              Spill Vase - (Pottery, Ceramics, Porcelain, Silver) A Spill Vase is a cylindrical vessel, usually of pottery or porcelain and under 8 inches long that is made to hold spills. (see Spill)

              Spindle - (Furniture) An upright rod or baluster used as support or backing for chairs, cradles and other furniture.

              Spinet - (Musical Instrument) A stringed musical instrument in which, like the virginal and the harpsichord, an upright piece of wood (the jack) rests on the end of the key lever. On top of the jack is inset a pivoted slip of wood bearing a point (quill or leather). When the end of the key lever rises this point `plucks' the strings. The spinet was known on the Continent long before its introduction into England about the middle of the seventeenth century, when it replaced the virginal and remained in favor for about 100 years until it was replaced in its turn by the small piano. Strictly the spinet should be of `trapezoid, pentagonal or wing-shape' as opposed to the virginal which is of rectangular form.

              Spinning Wheel - (Primitive, Utilitarian, Houseware) A machine with a revolving wheel operated by a treadle, for converting wool, flax or cotton into thread. Generally of wood, the spinning wheel dates back to the fourteenth century (perhaps earlier) and was still in use at the end of the eighteenth century. Spiral Turning Turned work in the form of a twist.

              Splat - (Furniture) – The central upright member of a chair back that connects the top rail to the seat.

              Spline - (Furniture) A small strip or slat of wood.

              Splined Joint
              - (Furniture, Joinery) A Splined Joint is a connection in which a spline is fitted into two grooves that run the length of the two pieces. They can be glued or pegged with dowels. The spline can extend through one or both pieces and can be decoratively exposed .

              Spode - (Earthenware, Porcelain, England) Spode China This ceramics factory founded in 1770 by Josiah Spode I (1733-1797) who was a visionary in business and in ceramic tableware. Josiah Spode I apprenticed, at the age of 16, to master potter Thomas Whieldon. Remaining with Whieldon until his 21st year, Spode learned much about pottery functionality and design; however, it was not until 1770 that Josiah Spode opened the doors to his own porcelain factory. The Spode factory began with earthenwae and graduated into the manufacture of porcelain. under the careful guidance of Josiah, was responsible for two of the most important breakthroughs in English ceramics: First, the formula for bone china that is used today and, even more importantly, he perfected the "underglaze" printing process for earthenware that is used today. Many intricate patterns could be applied to pieces without the worries of chipping, scratching and fading. Josiah Spode II would take control of the company upon his father's death in 1797. The tradition continued with Josiah Spode III. Following a tragic accident in 1829 that claimed the life of Josiah III, the business was sold, eventually landing in the hands of the Copeland family where it remained (under the Copeland banner) until the mid-sixties. After merging with Royal Worcester to form Royal Worcester Spode, the Spode name was resurrected in 1970 to celebrate the company's 200th anniversary. The Company now operates under the name Royal Worcester Spode LTD. Spode has become a worldwide success story.
              Spode is usually credited with evolving the bone-china body that is still the staple manufacture today. From 1800 extremely large quantities of this porcelain were produced in many styles-the Chinese, Meissen, early Worcester and Derby, Chelsea. Rich ground colours were favoured. Gilding was all too often overdone, especially in the middle of the nineteenth century. Excellent Parian and lustre wares were made. Probably the most prolific English factory, Spode never suffered the reversals which beset so many of their competitors. Their `stone china' should be mentioned.
              Marks usually include the name `Spode' in some form or other, most often transfer-printed.

              Spool Turning - (Furniture) Turned work in form of a succession of spools.

              Spoon - (Silver, Pewter, Woodenware) The spoon consists of three parts, the bowl, the stem, and the end or knop (though a form like the `Puritan' has no knop or finial). Some types that interest collectors: (1) the Maidenhead spoon, which appears at the close of the fourteenth century and has as finial a female bust; (2) the acorn-knop, mentioned as early as 1346, and made until the early seventeenth century; (3) the diamond point, which appeared in the mid-fourteenth century and was still being made in the early seventeenth century; (4) slipped-top (i.e. without a knop), mentioned in 1498 and still being made in the second half of the seventeenth century; (5) the seal top, introduced about 1525 and remaining in favour till the late seventeenth century; (6) the Puritan spoon, which has a flat stem and no knop, introduced in the 1630's and in favour for the remainder of the century; (7) the trifid spoon (or lobed end), introduced early in the reign of Charles II and remaining in favour until Anne's accession; (8) apostle spoons, in sets surmounted by a figure of an Apostle as knop. The earliest known example bears the mark for 1478. Some sets of twelve are surmounted by figures of the twelve Apostles; others in sets of thirteen (very rare) include the figure of the `Master' (Christ). Generally speaking the bowl of the spoon is pear-shaped, narrowest near the stem, until the mid-seventeenth century, when it becomes more oval and then widest near the handle. Marks were placed inside the bowl till about 1660, after which they begin to appear on the handle but near the bowl, and from about 1780 on the handle but near the end.

              Spoon-back - (Furniture) Chair back shaped to fit occupant. An American term.

              Spoon Carving - (Furniture) Shallow or low relief carving popular on Eastlake and Bruce Talbert's Modern Gothic Furniture.

              Sprimont, Nicholas - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Manufacturer) One of the founders of the Chelsea porcelain factory, of which he was probably manager from the beginning and owner from about 1757 to 1768. Sprimont was born at Liege and trained as a silversmith, which craft he probably followed when he came to London.

              Springs - (Furniture) Twisted metal coils used to make seats in furniture more comfortable to sit on. Not used in upholstered furniture before the nineteenth century.

              Stalker and Parker - (Lacquer, Japanning) Their Treatise on Japanning and Varnishing was published in 1688, and contained hints not only on japanning and varnishing but also on `Gilding, Burnishing and Lacquering ... Painting Mezzo-Tint-Prints ... Counterfeiting Tortoiseshell, and Marble' and many other secret arts.

              Stand - (Furniture) There are many types of stands: Candle Stand - made for a specific purpose. Occasional Tables - used for any needed purpose. China Stand - Made to display large pieces of Porcelain. Cabinet Stand Used to sit important pieces of Case Furniture. The most common type of a Stand is a small table that is intended to support or display an item.  They are usually drawerless but Sheraton Stands have one or two small drawers.

              Standard - (Furniture) Obsolete term for a type of coffer or chest covered with leather.

              Standing Cup  - (Silver, Ceramics, Porcelain) Richly ornamented ceremonial cup with cover.

              Standing Salt
               - (Silver) A large salt, often of precious metal, which occupied an important position on the dining-table in the Middle Ages and indeed till the beginning of the seventeenth century.

              Standish  - (Silver, Writing Tools) A term that dates from the fifteenth century to describe a stand made to hold inkwell, quills, and other writing materials and accessories. (The term `inkstand' came into use in the late eighteenth century.)

              Star - (Glass) Often seen elaborately cut on an item's base, it can also be a minor motif to fill in a small area. A "fan" is part of a star, the number of rays, and their length determined by the space available in the pattern.

              Steatite - (Rock, Mineral, Ceramics) See Soaprock.

              Stecco - (Ceramics, Pottery, Italy) Italian stick work the term used in Italy for the form of ceramic decoration known in England by the Italian term sgrafftto.

              Steel Engraving – (Fine Art Prints) Invented in the early 19th Century, Steel engravings utilized plates of harder metal than the traditional copper plate. This method was preferred for designs intended for large editions, as the plate was capable of producing sometimes more than one thousand clear impressions. Picturesque views and fashion plates, often appearing in portfolios and journals, were often engraved upon steel. Hand coloring these plates was quite common.

              Step-Cut - (Glass) Horizontal cuts which form step-like layers. Often used around the neck of a decanter so the hand does not slip while pouring, it is a design which adds sparkle in an otherwise difficult to cut area.

              Step Down Crest Rail - (Furniture) A Step Down Crest Rail is a Crest Rail that is wide in the center and then  tapers or abruptly decreases in width before it connects to the styles.

              Sterling Silver - (Silver, Jewelry) Term derived from the German tribe, the Easterlings, makers of fine silver in medieval times. Applied as the normal standard of English silver, 925/1000 fine, with 75/1000 of added metal, usually copper to give it strength and stiffness, at the beginning of the fourteenth century and has remained the standard except for the period 1697-1720 (see Britannia Standard), to the present time.   This standard was adopted by the United States Government in the Stamping Act of 1906, and any item stamped "Sterling" is of this quality. It appears on Baltimore Silver, 1800-1814, and 1860, elsewhere.

              Stiffel Lamp Company – (Lighting Lamps) Stiffel Lamp Company was founded in 1932 in the Chicago basement of founder T.A. Stiffel and quickly became known through out the world as the leader in fine lamps. In 1964, Stiffel sued the Sears Company for exactly copying their designs and sold lamps almost identical to those sold by Stiffel. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court and Stiffel lost. The court stated, "An unpatented article, like an article on which the patent has expired, is in the public domain and may be made and sold by whoever chooses to do so.” They are still in business today.

              Stile - (Furniture) The vertical member of a framework, in a chest, wood panel, window sash or door that occupies the end position in the framework. In a chair the Stile is the two vertical rear supports which the rails are joined into. 

              Stirrup Cup - (Ceramics, Pottery, Porcelain, Silver) A drinking cup in the form of a fox's head, though occasionally the form is that of some other animal's head. The stirrup cup is footless and lacks handles. Silver examples were popular sporting trophies. They were also made of pottery and porcelain.

              Stilton Cheese Scoop - (Silver Flatware) A Scoop with a long handle similar design to a marrow spoon with a shorter bowl an higher sides. Originally designed specifically for stilton cheese, it is useful for all soft cheeses. Stilton Cheese is a Blue Cheese and was first made in the early 18th century in the midlands of England. Specifically in and around the Melton Mowbray area near a Coach Town named Stilton.  There is a Nineteenth-Century English saying that says "Drink a pot of ale, eat a scoop of Stilton, every day, you will make 'old bones'." During the Victorian Era Elegant, dinning and Silver had reached its pinnacle and they had a specific utensil for every type of food that they served.

              Stitched-up - (Textiles, Furniture) Term applied to upholstery completely covering seat to lower edge of frame.

              Stoneware - (Ceramics) Stoneware was first developed in China in the 4th Century from there the process traveled to the Middle East. Stoneware was supposedly developed independently in the Rhineland area of Europe in the 9th Century. This region remained the center of production through the Middle Ages into the 17th Century and was usually seen with a salt-glaze. Stoneware is a hard non-porous pottery, its texture lies somewhere between earthenware and porcelain. It is almost always opaque but can be slightly translucent. In China it is not considered to be stoneware unless it "rings" when struck. Stoneware is composed of clay, a fusible stone like feldspar, It is then fired at 1200 to 1400 degrees, which is hot enough to vitrify the stone but not the clay. The body of stoneware can be many different colors ranging from an off-white to red or brown. Also called Gres in France and Steinzeug in Germany.

              Stool - (Furniture) A term used in the Middle Ages for a seat for one person, especially one without arms or back (its usual significance from the Tudor period). In the Academy of Armory (1649) joint stools, so called because made by the joiner, are distinguished from turned stools made by the turner or wheelwright. Until the second half of the seventeenth century stools were the normal seats for the dining table.

              Storr, Paul  - (Silver, Silversmith) London silversmith active 1795-1821; a superb craftsman and the probable begetter of the Regency style as regards silver.

              Strawberry - (Silver Pattern, Repoussé) Gorham Silver Manufactory Dated from 1874  Sterling Silver Mark with Lion, Anchor and G

              Strawberry Diamond
              - (Glass, Cut, Pattern) The Strawberry Diamond pattern is a diamond design with a small "X"-shaped cut on the high point of the diamond. The extra cuts add to the intricacy of the design and give it extra sparkle.

              Strapwork - (Furniture, Silver, Decoration)  Ornament consisting of flat bands interlaced with various patterns such as foliage and flowers, mostly used on furniture (carved), but borrowed by the silversmith. Dates from the middle of the sixteenth century.

              Strasbourg - (Ceramics, Pottery, Porcelain, Germany)  Important faience centre in Alsace, which became prominent from c. 1720 thanks to a factory established by a partnership between Charles Frangois Hannong and Johann Heinrich Wackenfeld. Wackenfeld, who may have been at Meissen, did not stay long but the enterprise expanded under the direction of Hannong, and later under his son, Joseph. until a decline set in about 1760 and the factory closed in 1780, Important pieces in the rococo style were produced here; and some porcelain was made, the early wares being difficult to distinguish from those of Frankenthal.

              Straw-work - (Furniture, Decoration) A form of furniture decoration employing strips of straw, bleached and dyed, applied in geometrical or other patterns. This fashion reached England from the Continent towards the end of the seventeenth century and remained popular for well over 100 years (French prisoners-of-war c. 1795-1815 produced a great deal of straw-work).

              Stretcher - (Furniture) Horizontal member between legs of a chair, table or stool.

              Stringing - (Furniture, Decoration) A line or narrow band usually of wood inlaid as a decorative border on furniture. This practice dates from the second half of the sixteenth century, when light-colored woods were used to contrast against a darker ground; brass stringing is frequent feature of Regency furniture.

              Stub Foot - (Furniture) A Stub Foot is a short, broad, downward tapering foot that is usually attached to the bottom of a piece of case furniture.

              Student Lamp - (Lighting Lamps) A reading lamp that is easily adjustable for direction or distance.

              Sucrier - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Silver) A large covered sugar bowl made from porcelain, however, silver examples exist.

              Sumie Togidashi Makie
              - (Japanese Lacquer) Flattened sprinkled design imitating ink painting. Togidashi makie in which the sprinkled powders imitate the effects of ink painting. Powdered camellia-wood charcoal is used for deep black, lighter black is made from powdered black lacquer, and white is suggested by silver, gold or tin powders. Shades of grey are produced by mixing the powders. Also called Togikiri Makie.

              Sung Dynasty - (Period, China) From A.D. 960-1279 considered the most 'civilized' dynasty of them all thanks to a cultured and cultivated ruling elite. A great period for collecting and cataloguing art of earlier times and this leads to much copying. In painting the landscape of mood is introduced; the weaving of silk tapestries is notable. A rich period for ceramics: Ting ware, celadon, painted stoneware; Sung pottery and porcelain are esteemed for calm unbroken surfaces, classical purity of form, and such techniques as monochrome glazing, painting on slip under the glaze, painting over the glaze, sgraffito.

              Surfeit Water Glass - (Glass) Delicate flute-shaped drinking glass, the brim less than one inch in diameter; mid-Georgian. (Surfeit water was a fearfully strong brandy.)

              Sutherland Table - (Furniture) Dwarf table with flap leaves and pull-out leg supports. Name derives from Harriet, Duchess of S. Victorian successor to sofa table.

              Suzhou - (Textile) This type of embroidery is named for the Chinese province of the same name and records show that embroidery was first used there over 2000 years ago to decorate clothing. These techniques later evolved and were used to depict maps and landscapes and to make “reproductions” of paintings.

              Swag - (Textile, Decoration) A festoon of cloth, or of flowers and fruit, favored as a decorative motif.

              Swansea
              - (Ceramics, Porcelain, England)  In 1814 William Billingsley quit his Nantgarw factory and joined forces with Lewis Dillwyn at the latter's Cambrian Pottery works at Swansea, the object being to make an economic success of Billingsley's porcelain formula. The enterprise was but a limited success and by 1817 Billingsley was on the move again. Porcelain continued to be made at Swansea till 1823.
              The first wares made were very similar to Nantgarw; then came a more stable body, the `duck egg' paste, which contained a small amount of soaprock; and later again a harder, whiter porcelain was made, which contained considerably more soaprock. After Billingsley's departure the porcelain made was inferior. The best Swansea is as good-and as rare-as Nantgarw. Table ware, plates particularly, was the main product. Painted decoration by Thomas Baxter, Thomas Pardoe, and William Young is highly esteemed. `SWANSEA' usually impressed but sometimes painted in red or other colors, is the standard mark.

              Swansea - (Ceramics, Pottery) The Cambrian Pottery works was founded during the 1760's and remained in the Coles family until 1802 when it passed to Lewis Dillwyn. It traded as Bevington & Co. for a time, then reverted to Dillwyn about 1823, finally passing into other hands and closing down in 1870.

              Swell Front - (Furniture)  Convex or Bow front on a case piece of furniture.

              Swallow - (Oriental Symbolism) A bird that is the harbinger of spring. The swallow symbolizes success, happiness, children, and the relation between elder and younger brother. 


              Swan Neck Pediment - (Architecture, Furniture) Broken pediment in which the two sides are curved instead of straight. See Scroll Pediment. Also See Pediment for the many different types.

              Swing Leg - (Furniture) A Swing Leg is a table leg that is similar to the gate on a Gate-Leg table minus the stretcher at the bottom.  On a swing leg, the leg is attached to a member at the top only, to a fixed member beneath the table and it pivots out to support a leaf that either swings up or unfolds.

              Swung (or Swing) Vase - (Glass) a vase made into final height by being swung (literally) while still attached to the puntie rod. Heights may vary considerably.

              Sycamore - (Wood) Sycamore is a yellowish wood, fine-grained, medium-hard, takes an excellent polish; was used for marquetry on walnut furniture, and as veneer and in the solid during the last third of the eighteenth century when the vogue was for satinwood furniture.

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