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                Glossary of Antique terms  A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
                Icart, Louis - (Fine Art, Prints, Artist) A French fashion artist that Started his career in 1900. His favorite subject was high-fashion art deco and art nouveau ladies and sometimes with dogs. During World War I he was in the army but continued to sketch and do engravings, these editions are quite limited and more desirable.

                Cream Molds - (Kitchen, Pewter, Copper) These molds were figural and three-dimentional in two parts. There are many shapes and types, and even faternal organizations had molds especially made in the shape of their insignia.

                Ice Cream Scoop - (Kitchen, Metal, Utensil) The first ice cream scoops were made in a cone shape, then they developed the lever action scoop.

                Ice Glass - (Glass) Pitted, frosted surface; Venetian originally, glass that looks like cracked ice.

                Ice Lip - (Glass, Ceramics, Pottery, Silver) The ice lip on a pitcher is a lip that has a piece over the top of the lip to keep the ice in the pitcher from falling into the glass while pouring. 
                 
                Icon - (Fine Art, Religious) An icon is a religious painting on wood used by Eastern Orthodox religions for devotion, they sometime have a repouss├ęd frame attached over the painted part of the icon for decoration.  

                Illuminated Book - (Book) An illuminated book is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration, such as decorated initials, borders called marginalia and miniature illustrations. Originally the definition of the term was applied to an illuminated manuscript decorated with gold or silver, but now, the term is used to refer to any decorated or illustrated manuscript. The earliest surviving illuminated manuscripts are from the period AD 400 to 600 made in Italy. The many of the surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, however some illuminated manuscripts survive from the Renaissance, along with a few from Late Antiquity but most that are collected today are from the 1800s. The majority of these manuscripts are of a religious nature.

                Image Toys - (Ceramics, Pottery, England) Pottery Figurines made in the mid 18th century in Staffordshire, England.

                Imari, Japanese (Aka-e)  - (Porcelain Japan) "Imari" is actually a Japanese harbor in close proximity to the Arita kiln area, in the present Saga Prefecture. In the West "Japanese Imari" has become the trade name of a Japanese ware with a characteristic decoration mainly in underglaze blue with added red, gilt and occasionally green enamels. The correct name of this decoration is aka-e (red painting) and was first produced around 1640.

                Imari Ware - (Japanese Porcelain) Japanese porcelain from Arita characterized by over-decoration in red, blue and other colors inspired by brocades ('Brocaded Imari'). These wares, which reached England in increasing quantities during the eighteenth century, were copied by many English factories. The Chinese copied them too. Then in the late nineteenth century the Japanese copied themselves and exported considerable quantities of this product. Imari was the port a few miles from Arita through which the wares were shipped to Europe originally but the Dutch East India Company.

                Imbricate Armor - (Armor) Imbricate Armor is armor made in the 1200s and 1300s of overlapping scales of metal attached to leather or cloth.

                Impasto - (Ceramics, Pottery, Porcelain, Decoration) Impasto is color that is the consistency of frosting on a cake, when it is put in a vessel the color stands out from the surface.

                Imperf - (Stamps) An imperf is a stamp deliberately issued without perforation. It is also called imperforate.

                Imperforate - (Stamps) An imperforate is a stamp deliberately issued without perforation. It is also called imperf.

                Imperial Glass - (Glass) Imperial Glass Company opened in 1901 in Bellaire, Ohio they closed in 1931. They reopened as Imperial Glass Corporation and were then bought out by Lenox. They made carnival glass, stretch glass called Imperial Jewels, and a best known for their Candlewick pattern dinnerware line. They purchased molds from Heisey, Cambridge and Central Glass Works and made reproductions of their glassware. Imperial Glass Company used the mark I over G.   

                Imperial Porcelain - (Ceramics, Porcelain, United States, Figurines) Imperial Porcelain was in business from 1947 to 1960 in Zanesville Ohio. They mainly made utilitarian ware, novelty items, mugs, planters and figurines. They hired Paul Webb who created Lil Abner and Daisy Mae comic strip to help them create two lines of figurines called Blue Ridge Mountain Boys and American Folklore Miniatures.

                Imperial Porcelain St. Petersburg - (Ceramics, Porcelain, Russian) Founded in 1744, the porcelain factory was created by the order of Empress Elizabeth to promote native trade and native art. The factory produced wares exclusively for the ruling Romanov family and the Russian Imperial Court. They made statues, busts, bisque portrayals of Russian scenes and dinnerware. They are well known for their cobalt blue net pattern dinnerware. In 1900 they started making Art Nouveau pieces. The factory changed its name in 1925 to Lomonsov Porcelain Factory. The porcelain was marked with the mark of the reigning monarch so it is easy to date. 

                Imperial Yellow - (Chinese) Bright yellow favored by the Chinese Emperors. In glazing pottery Yellow is the most difficult color to produce.  It tends to dissolve in the kiln because of the high temperatures.  A clear strong yellow is an indication of a master porcelain maker. They can be more valuable.

                Important - (Term, Auction) A term used at auctions that states that a piece is rare and valuable usually with provenance.

                Impression - (Coins) An impression is a die with the design in reverse, when the coin is struck it is run through two dies making a positive impression on the coin.
                 
                Imprint - (Books) The imprint refers to the title page or copyright page of a book that lists the publishers name, address, date and edition.
                 
                Ince, William and Mayhew, John - (Furniture, Maker) Cabinet-makers whose book of designs, the Universal System of Household Furniture appeared in parts during the period 1759-63. Their style is a mixture of rococo and Gothic elements in elaborate symmetrical patterns. Ornate chair backs are a feature. Cabinets, stands, mirrors, sconces are frequently decorated with fauna and tendrils.

                Incised  - (Ceramics, Decoration) Ceramics decoration, the design being executed with a pointed tool, an ancient manner of decorating pottery. (See Sgraffito for a sophisticated variation.) (Furniture) A decorative carved accent on a piece of furniture.

                'India' or 'Indian' Goods - (Oriental) Term in use throughout the seventeenth and a good deal of the eighteenth century to describe any articles imported from the Orient.

                Indiana Tumbler and Glass Company – (Glass, Manufacturer, United States) Jacob Rosenthal was the owner of the Indiana Tumbler and Glass Company. They were known for inventing caramel slag glass also known as chocolate glass. The glass is swirled shades of chocolate brown. Many other glass companies reproduced caramel slag glass and chocolate glass.
                 
                Inlay - (Furniture) A method of decorating furniture by laying small pieces of differently colored woods (or bone, ivory, etc.) in prepared recesses in the surface of the piece to be decorated. This inlay was a popular form of decoration in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries on oak and walnut furniture. Bone and Ivory was commonly inlayed around keyholes for Escutcheons. Inlay should not be confused with Marquetry or Parquetry. See Marquetry and Parquetry.

                Intaglio - (Design Glass, Ceramics, Jewelry) Engraved design, which is sunken below the surface in glass, ceramics, jewelry. On glass, the carving is usually done from underneath or from the inside so that the outside surface is smooth with the design showing through.

                Intarsia or Tarsia - (Decoration Wood, Metal, Ivory) Inlay of colored woods (or metal, ivory, etc.) much used in Italy in the fifteenth century, particularly on chests. Much esteemed is the work of Fra Giovanno (1459-1525), in which landscapes, vistas of cities and human figures are represented. This form of decoration is the parent of parquetry.

                Iroe Togidashi Makie - (Japanese Lacquer) Flattened sprinkled design in colors. Togidashi makie in which the sprinkled powers are made of colored lacquer rather than metal.

                Ironstone China - (Ceramics, Pottery, England) Opaque stoneware made first by Spode at the beginning of the nineteenth century and later by several makers, including Mason of Lane Delph and Ridgway of Hanley.

                Isokichi, Asakura 2nd – (Japan Potter) 1913 -1998 - Yosaku Isokichi is born in Terai on February 26th 1913. He first learned ceramic from his father. In 1928 he became student from Tokuda Yasokichi 1st and he learned multicolor enamel from Kitade Tojiro in 1946. He was awarded a prize for the first time in 1946 by the Japan Fine Arts Assiociation, Nitten. He attended many exhibitions and received a prize from the Japanese Prime Minister in 1977. He received the Prime Minister Prize and the Japan Art Academy Award in 1981. In 1993, Isokichi museum opened in Terai city. He was nomminated as a person who has contributed to culture in 1992 and received the Order of Cultural Merit in 1996. He was member of Japan Art Academy, Adviser of Nitten and President of the Association of Ishikawa Prefectural Arts and Culture. He is a modern style painter not too far from Kutani original colors and likes to give space to the motifs of his potteries. His products have fantastic pictures such as yellow butterflies dancing on camellias. In the last part of his life, he had the tendency of not using at all any akae (red) paint.
                Glossary of Antique terms  A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z
                 
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